posted Feb 28, 2010, 2:55 AM by Olaf Bochmann
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updated Mar 1, 2010, 8:18 AM
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The behavior of complex systems is a result of their internal structure. This structure reflects how processes compute information. This is determined by answering three questions:  How much historical information does a process store?
 How is that information stored?
 How is the stored information used to produce future behavior?
The answers to these questions tell one how a system intrinsically computes. intrinsic unpredictability (deterministic chaos) emergence of structure (selforganization) Main Idea Structure = Information + Computation
 How Nature is Structured is How Nature Computes
Readings  Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: with applications to physics, biology, chemistry, and engineering, S. H. Strogatz, AddisonWesley, Reading, Massachusetts (2001).
 Elements of Information Theory, T. M. Cover and J. A. Thomas, Second Edition, WileyInterscience, New York (2006).
 J. P. Crutchfield, JD Farmer, NH Packard, RS Shaw, "Chaos", Scientific American 255 (1986) 46–57.
 J. P. Crutchfield, "ZTransforms for Stochastic Automata", Research Notes (1991) 17.
 J. P. Crutchfield, "Is Anything Ever New? Considering Emergence", in Complexity: Metaphors, Models, and Reality, G. Cowan, D. Pines, and D. Melzner, editors, SFI Series in the Sciences of Complexity XIX, AddisonWesley, Redwood City (1994) 479497.
 J. P. Crutchfield and D. P. Feldman, "Regularities Unseen, Randomness Observed: Levels of Entropy Convergence", CHAOS 13:1 (2003) 2554.
 Stanislaw Lem, "Odds", New Yorker 54 (1978) 38–54.
 Stanislaw Lem, "Chance and Order", The New Yorker 59 (1984) 8898.
 D. P. Varn, G. S. Canright, and J. P. Crutchfield, "Inferring Pattern and Disorder in ClosePacked Structures from Xray Diffraction Studies, Part I: epsilonMachine Spectral Reconstruction Theory"
 D. P. Varn, G. S. Canright, and J. P. Crutchfield, "Inferring Pattern and Disorder in ClosePacked Structures from Xray Diffraction Studies, Part II: Structure and Intrinsic Computation in Zinc Sulphide"
 C. R. Shalizi and J. P. Crutchfield, "Computational Mechanics: Pattern and Prediction, Structure and Simplicity", Journal of Statistical Physics 104 (2001) 819881.
 A. Archibald, "A Review of Residues and IntegrationA Procedural Approach", Online Research Notes (date unknown) 19.
 Mark Buchanan, "Revealing the Order in Chaos", New Scientist (26 February 2005).

